Genetics of Hair Color

Know Your Health: Genetics of Hair Color

By LunaDNA Contributor

Hair colors are passed down through generations. Sometimes the colors are predictable, and sometimes, unexpected colors occur through a genetic mutation. Learn about the genetics of hair color. 

Hair colors are a spectrum of hues that can range from white blond to coal black. Hair color is inherited, and many genes are involved in the process. Sometimes, unexpected hair color can occur in a child because of a genetic mutation. Some of the genes involved in hair color also influence eye color and skin color.  

Hair color is the result of genetics. Learn about the genetics of hair color and what causes different hair colors in this guide.  

  • How is Hair Color Determined? 
  • Is Hair Color Genetic? 
  • Is Hair Color Inherited? 
  • Can Hair Color Be Predicted? 
  • What Does Your Hair Color Mean?  
  • Brown Hair 
  • Black Hair 
  • Blond Hair 
  • Red Hair 

How Is Hair Color Determined? 

Two types of pigment, or melanin, determine hair color. An abundance of eumelanin colors hair black or brown, and an abundance of pheomelanin colors hair orange or red. Every hair color contains some amount of the darker pigment eumelanin. Low levels of eumelanin result in lighter hair, and higher levels result in darker hair.  

The genes responsible for hair color are neither dominant nor recessive — it is a matter of which genes are turned on or turned off. The hair color produced depends on the amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes (melanin-forming cells). If receptors on the surface of the melanocytes are active, they produce, eumelanin, the pigment responsible for brown or black hair. If the receptors are inactive or blocked, they produce pheomelanin, the pigment responsible for orange or red hair.  

Jet-black hair has large numbers of tightly packed eumelanin. Red hair has large numbers of tightly packed pheomelanin. Blonde hair has both types of melanin, but in very small amounts and loosely packed. Variations lead to a wide range of shades within each hue. Hair color usually darkens as genes are turned on and off during childhood and puberty. Later in life, hair can turn gray and white as fewer pigment cells produce and store melanin. Gray hair has only a little pigment in it, while white hair has no pigment. 

Is Hair Color Genetic? 

Hair color is one of several physical traits that are genetic, or passed down through an individual’s DNA. Human DNA has millions of on and off switches along networks that control how genes function. Genes responsible for hair color come from both parents.  

Although the genes passed down from a child’s parents determine hair color, variations can result in a child having a different hair color than both parents. The genetics of hair color is the result of many genes working together to control the amount and type of melanin. Large amounts of very dense eumelanin produce black hair. Moderate somewhat dense amounts result in brown hair. Very little and thinly dispersed amounts result in blonde hair. If you have mostly pheomelanin with a little eumelanin, red hair is the result. Additionally, a variation in the blond gene can lead to premature graying.  

Is Hair Color Inherited from Mother or Father? 

Hair color comes from both parents through the chromosomes passed onto their child. The 46 chromosomes (23 from each parent) have genes made up of DNA with instructions of what traits a child will inherit. The results can be surprising. For example, black-haired parents can unknowingly each carry an unexpressed blond-hair gene that can pass to their fair-haired child. This explains why siblings can have different shades of hair.  

What Does Your Hair Color Mean? 

Hair color may be related to your ancestry. Darker hair is more prevalent among people in the southern hemisphere, and lighter hair is more common in the northern hemisphere. Darker hair is associated with areas of harsh sunlight, and lighter hair with areas of less sunshine. However, there are many exceptions due to genetics, migration of people, and other factors. 

Black and Brown Hair 

The most common hair colors around the world are black and brown, and it is estimated that over 90 percent of people have black or brown hair. Depending on the levels of pigment, colors range from an almost light-blond brown to dark black.  

Blonde Hair 

Blonde hair is produced by low levels of pigment (called eumelanin). Variation in the small amounts of eumelanin accounts for the wide range of blond shades, from platinum blond to dark golden blond. Many people with blond hair develop darker hair later in life. Natural light blond hair in adults is rare.  

Red Hair 

Red is the rarest hair color and is thought to be found in around 1 to 2 percent of people worldwide. In the Northern Hemisphere, 2 to 6 percent of people have red hair.  

Red hair ranges from light strawberry blond to deep burgundy, depending on the amount of pheomelanin (red pigment) and eumelanin (brown/black pigment) is present. Auburn hair has a higher concentration of pheomelanin, while chestnut hair has more eumelanin.  

Red hair has fascinated humans throughout history. In fact, the term “redhead” was first noted in the 16th century. In addition, frescos from ancient times depict Hades, the god of the underworld, as a redhead.  

Over time, scientific discoveries have led to a deeper understanding of the genetics that affects hair color. As advancements in genetics and overall health are made, more discoveries will undoubtedly unlock the mysteries of who we are, where we’re from, and why people around the world come in so many shapes, sizes, and hair colors. 

LunaDNA is bringing together people and researchers to better understand life, including genetic traits like hair color. Directly drive health discovery by joining the All About Me Study. The more people who come together to contribute health data for the greater good, the quicker and more efficient research will scale, and improve the quality of life for us all.  

Click here to get started.

Are Crooked Teeth Genetic?

Know Your Health: How Your DNA May Affect Your Smile

By LunaDNA Contributor

The causes of crooked teeth are varied. Our ancestry may have interesting clues to the genetics of crooked teeth. Learn about crooked teeth, and how DNA may play a role in overall teeth health. 

According to the American Association of Orthodontists, an estimated 4 million people wear braces on their teeth. However, misaligned teeth are a recent development in human evolution. Early human fossils from cavemen usually have well-aligned, uniform teeth. Some anthropologists believe the development of misaligned teeth occurred when our jaws began shrinking over time due to changes in our diet that required less chewing. Today, we know that some genetic factors, such as jaw size and number of teeth, can affect misalignment, but behaviors and environmental causes are also involved.  

Are Crooked Teeth Genetic?

Crooked teeth are common over the last few hundred years, yet skulls from humans that lived thousands of years ago have well-aligned teeth. Fossils show that cavemen didn’t have many dental problems despite the lack of toothpaste and floss. Today, dental consultations are recommended before the age of 8. Learn more about crooked teeth and its genetic connections, including:  

  • What Causes Crooked Teeth? 
  • Types of Crooked Teeth 
  • Are Crooked Teeth Genetic? 
  • Ancestry of Crooked Teeth 
  • Problems Associated With Crooked Teeth 
  • How to Fix Crooked Teeth 

What Causes Crooked Teeth? 

Crooked teeth do not always happen by chance. Habits and maladies that may lead to undeveloped jaws and crowded teeth include

  • tongue thrusting (also known as reverse swallowing) 
  • thumb sucking 
  • prolonged use of pacifiers 
  • mouth breathing (due to allergies, asthma, and other conditions that cause a person to breath through his or her mouth) 
  • open mouth posture 
  • tumors of the mouth and jaw 

These habits and maladies contribute to poor jaw growth, leaving many with misaligned teeth and undeveloped jaws. This improper development can limit the space available for teeth and can prohibit them from growing in the ideal position.  

An undeveloped jaw can lead to a mouth of crowded teeth. Since orthodontia work does not usually start until all permanent teeth come in, teeth might be pulled, because the jaw is deemed too small to accommodate all the teeth.  

Mouth breathing leads to the tongue not resting in the correct position on the roof of the mouth. This can in turn lead to an underdeveloped upper and lower jaw. An upper jaw improperly developed may restrict the airway further. This can keep the mouth open, which might exacerbate the problem.  

Reverse swallowing, also known as tongue thrusting, occurs when the tongue pushes forward and the lips push back when swallowing. A child swallows at least a couple times a minute, so pushing the tongue forward against the teeth can, over time, create a condition called open bite.  

Diet may be a factor too. In the 1930s, Weston Price, an American dentist, studied various groups around the world and found that those employing a primitive diet had little tooth decay, larger jaws, and straight teeth. Orthodontics became a specialty in 1900 in response to bad habits and maladies that children had during the Industrial Revolution. After the Industrial Revolution, people swapped out a natural diet, closer to what their ancestors had eaten, for one of more processed foods. It is possible that this softer diet hindered normal jaw growth because less jaw strength was required.  

Types of Crooked Teeth  

Crooked mouthfuls of teeth come in all shapes and sizes, but there are three general classes of malocclusions, which means misaligned teeth:  

Class 1 occurs when the upper teeth slightly overlap the lower teeth, but the bite is normal. This is the most common type of crooked teeth.  

Class 2 occurs when the upper teeth and jaw severely overlap the lower teeth and jaw and is sometimes called an overbite. Difficulties in chewing can be painful and can lead to headaches and temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ), a painful condition of the joint that connects your jaw to the side of your head.  

Class 3 occurs when the lower teeth project beyond the front of the upper teeth when the jaw closes and is sometimes called an underbite. Those with underbites can have trouble chewing and often suffer from headaches. Overtime, an underbite can cause TMJ.  

Are Crooked Teeth Genetic? 

Humans today are nearly identical to their ancestors who had straight teeth. This suggests that crooked teeth are partly a result of evolution. Some experts believe that the Industrial Revolution, which happened about 150 to 200 hundred years ago, triggered people to have crooked teeth.  

Interestingly, most wild mammals have straight teeth. Some researchers believe that when culture shifted from rural to manufacturing, something went awry. Others think it happened thousands of years earlier, when humans transitioned from hunting and gathering to farming. Ancestral upper and lower jaws of hunter-gatherers were more often better aligned than those of later humans. 

Ancestry of Crooked Teeth 

With the introduction of the modern baby bottle in the mid-1800s, human populations became less reliant on breastfeeding their young. Research has shown that the muscles required for an infant to breastfeed are not used as extensively when a child is bottle-fed. At the end of the 1940s, German dental experts Dr. Wilhelm Balters and Dr. Adolf Müller discovered that babies who had been breastfed had significantly fewer crooked teeth. Studies continue to be conducted to determine if there is a link between the use of bottles and the impact it has on jaw development and crooked teeth.  

Problems Associated With Crooked Teeth 

Crooked teeth make it harder to chew and can put a strain on the jaw, increasing the risk of breaking a tooth. It is also harder to clean crooked teeth, leaving the opening for cavities and other dental maladies. Protruding teeth can rub against and wear down other teeth.  

Beyond this, crooked teeth can impact overall health. This decreases the chance of bacteria going into the pockets of the gums, which can lead to gum disease. Some research suggests that, when bacteria is left untreated, it can enter the bloodstream and may lead to heart disease, diabetes, or stroke.  

While we know some genetic causes for tooth issues, much is still unknown about the connections between genes and dental problems. Researchers are hopeful that recent discoveries will open the door for the development of new and improved dental- and orthodontic-care tactics and treatments.  

LunaDNA is bringing together people and researchers to better understand life, including genetic conditions like crooked teeth. Directly drive health discovery by joining the All About Me Study. The more people who come together to contribute health data for the greater good, the quicker and more efficient research will scale, and improve the quality of life for us all.  

Click here to get started.

Couple sleeping

Know Your Health: What Causes Snoring?

By LunaDNA Contributing Writer 

Snoring occurs when air can’t flow freely through the nose and throat.

As air fights to make its way through the airways, it jangles against the tissues in the nose and throat creating a snoring sound. Learn why people snore, and what can be done about it including:

  • Why Do People Snore?
  • What Causes Snoring?
  • Is Snoring Genetic?
  • Snoring and Sleep Apnea
  • Snoring Solutions and Treatment
  • Is Snoring Curable?
  • How to Stop Snoring

Why Do People Snore?  

People who snore often have too much tissue in their noses and throats. The snoring sound is due to tissue vibrating in the upper airway, typically during inhalation. Most people don’t know they snore until someone tells them. Signs of snoring are: waking up with a headache or dry mouth, waking up suddenly in the middle of the night (and not from a nightmare), feeling tired during the day (even if sleeping a full night), waking up coughing or wheezing, or experiencing dental issues. 

While snoring is not an illness, it can be a symptom of a serious condition called sleep apnea, a disorder characterized by labored breathing, snoring, and gasps while asleep. In sleep apnea, the neck muscles relax, and the pathway for air to get to the lungs shuts down. At that point, the brain will usually send a signal that it needs more oxygen, which wakes up the snorer.  

Often snorers, especially those with sleep apnea, are unaware they are waking up, but they feel exhausted the following morning.  

What Causes Snoring? 

About 40 percent of men and 24 percent of women are prone to chronic snoring. Possible physical reasons for snoring include being overweight, enlarged tonsils or tongue, enlarged adenoids, elongated soft palate or cleft palate, or the shape of a person’s nose or jaw. Other factors that may contribute to snoring are nasal congestion or allergies, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping position, and sleep deprivation.  

The following are risk factors for snoring:

  • being a man
  • being overweight
  • narrow or closed off airway
  • narrow throat
  • elongated soft palate
  • cleft palate
  • enlarged adenoids
  • deviated septum
  • nasal congestion or allergies
  • sleep position
  • sleep deprivation
  • alcohol consumption
  • smoking
  • having a family history of snoring or sleep apnea

Is Snoring Genetic? 

Chronic snoring isn’t necessarily genetic, but factors that contribute to snoring may have hereditary roots. Obesity, certain anatomical traits, and medical conditions like obstructive sleep apnea, can have a genetic component. These traits paired with non-genetic factors may increase a person’s risk of snoring.  

Parents that snore are three times more likely to have children that snore than parents that don’t snore. Even having a family member that chronically snores can be a contributing factor if it causes sleep deprivation (a risk factor in snoring). About 10 percent or more children snore on most nights. 

Snoring and Sleep Apnea — What Are the Signs of Sleep Apnea 

Sleep apnea is a potentially serious medical disorder that causes breathing to stop and start repeatedly throughout the night. If your parent has sleep apnea, you are at a higher risk of developing it. People with sleep apnea have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, abnormal test results on liver function tests, and complications with medications and general anesthesia.  

Types of Sleep Apnea 

There are three main types of sleep apnea:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea. This occurs when throat muscles relax to the point of hindering airflow, either by the tongue falling into the back of the throat or some other physical obstruction.
  • Central sleep apnea is the least common form of sleep apnea and occurs when the brain doesn’t send a signal to the muscles that control breathing.  
  • Complex sleep apnea syndrome is the diagnosis for people with both types of sleep apnea (obstructive and central).  

Symptoms of Sleep Apnea 

Symptoms of sleep apnea (besides loud snoring) include: 

  • gasping for air during sleep
  • chest pains
  • feeling excessively drowsy throughout the day
  • irritability
  • chronic headaches or sore throat
  • dry mouth after waking in the morning
  • high blood pressure

Risk factors for sleep apnea include having a heart disorder; excess weight; nasal congestion; thicker neck circumference; a narrow throat; family history of sleep apnea; use of sedatives, pain medications, or alcohol that relax throat muscles; and smoking. Anyone that smokes is three times as likely to have sleep apnea than those who have never smoked. Smoking can increase inflammation and fluid retention in the upper airway.  

Snoring Solutions and Treatment 

Treatments for snoring run the gamut from non-invasive nasal breathing strips to invasive surgical procedures. Other non-invasive home remedies include sleeping on the side instead of the back, losing weight, avoiding alcohol and smoking, and treating allergies. Treatments for snoring that may require a prescription for insurance coverage are a mouth guard or a CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) machine that prevents airway collapse. One of the most invasive remedies is surgery to remove the excess tissue in the airway. Success rates for surgery are good, but the procedure can be painful. Surgery is rarely used to treat snoring without sleep apnea. Your doctor can determine the best treatment option for you. 

Is Snoring Curable? 

Less snoring can be achieved with behavioral changes, treatments, and remedies. A diagnosis from a doctor or a specialist, such as an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat doctor) is the first step. A diagnosis holds the key to determining if snoring is the issue or if it is a symptom of another condition. 

How to Stop Snoring 

To stop snoring, you must find the right combination of strategies. Some simple remedies to try include:  

  • Avoid sleeping on the back; sleeping on the side keeps the tongue from obstructing airflow
  • Lose that weight, especially if you weren’t snoring before gaining weight
  • Don’t drink alcohol before bedtime; make sure last call is at least four hours before you go to bed
  • Get at least seven hours of sleep at night; not getting enough sleep makes muscles floppy and leads to snoring
  • Try raising the head of your bed by four inches; if this doesn’t work, try a wedge pillow next
  • Kick the pets out of bed; pet dander can irritate your nasal allergies
  • Change out the bed pillow regularly to keep dust mites (that can lead to snoring) at bay
  • Hydrate by drinking plenty of water that helps keep nasal passages moist and unclogged by keeping phlegm flowing and less sticky

If you’d like to help researchers better understand snoring, sleep apnea, and other conditions, take the LunaDNA sleeps surveys. The more people who come together to contribute health data for the greater good, the quicker and more efficient research will scale, and improve the quality of life for us all.  

Click here to get started.

Woman meeting with her doctor

Understanding Your Personal and Genomic Health: An Interview with Genome Medical

A few months ago, we partnered with Genome Medical to offer LunaDNA members access to their network of clinical genomic specialists to dig deeper into their health and DNA information.

Today, we’re chatting with Sheryl Walker, MS CGC to take a deeper look into the services they offer and how understanding your genetic makeup can help kickstart your health journey.

LunaPBC: Hi Sheryl Walker, MS CGC. Thanks for taking the time to chat with us today and share more about the amazing work you’re doing at Genome Medical. We’re excited to be partnering with you. In a nutshell, can you tell us more about Genome Medical and the services you offer to LunaDNA members?

Sheryl Walker, MS CGC, Genome Medical

Genome Medical: No problem, thank you for the opportunity! Genome Medical provides genetic counseling services by phone or video to individuals in all 50 states and has professionals with expertise in multiple areas of clinical care, including cancer, cardiology, reproductive, pediatric, pharmacy, and proactive genetic testing. LunaDNA members can schedule a one-on-one genetic counseling session in any of these areas to review their personal medical history and family medical history, discuss any appropriate diagnostic genetic testing, and get answers to specific questions they may have regarding previous test results. Diagnostic genetic testing can be informative for individuals with a diagnosis to guide treatment, aid in recommendations for future care, provide risk information for relatives, and more.  

LunaPBC: That’s wonderful. This is clearly beneficial for someone with health questions. It sounds like people can learn more about themselves and, importantly, take adequate preventative measures on their health journey. What if someone isn’t experiencing any health challenges? How might they benefit from speaking with a genetic counselor?

Genome Medical: That is an excellent question. As researchers continue to learn about how our genes impact our health and potential for disease, and as more consumers learn about the information their genes can provide, more individuals are seeking genetic information–including those who are healthy and unaffected by disease. While a person may not currently have a disease diagnosis, testing of their genes could reveal health risks and the potential for a future diagnosis. Many genetic diseases present earlier in life or family members will show signs and symptoms of a genetic disease that is being passed through a family, but this is not always the case. Many factors influence the manifestation of disease, including environment, lifestyle, age, and genetic factors. Even individuals who currently have a clean bill of health could have a risk for hereditary disease based on their family medical history or be found to have a genetic disease predisposition that may not show signs in standard health screenings. One such example is predisposition to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a hereditary disease that causes thickening of the heart muscle; this would not be identified unless a person was undergoing specific cardiovascular imaging. For several hereditary disorders, such as genetic predisposition to cancer risk, there are recommended screenings and management guidelines to help prevent a diagnosis and reduce risk. All individuals can benefit from reviewing their personal and family medical history with a genetic counselor. Even individuals who have no ‘red flags’ may be interested in and potentially benefit from clinical genetic testing and proactive health screening.  

LunaPBC: Last year, we commissioned the Harris Poll to conduct a survey across 2,000 Americans to better understand the relationship Americans have with consumer DNA test kits, including how informed they feel about how their DNA data will be used and general concerns with participation. We learned that roughly approximately one quarter of Americans are concerned about finding out they carry a genetic disease (24%) and that their insurance company could access their results (23%). What would you say to the population of people who have these concerns?

Genome Medical: As a genetic counselor, I feel strongly that genetic testing can be extremely beneficial, but also that genetic testing is a personal choice. I have found that patients will choose to learn about genetic testing at different times in their lives (e.g. not interested in their 30’s but become interested in their 40’s) and seek different amounts of genetic information. The discussion we have in their session helps determine how they want to proceed and what is going to be most beneficial for them. I think it is good to question one’s motivations for accessing genetic information and, even more importantly, to think about how one might use this information and how they would feel if they learned they carry a genetic predisposition to disease. Genetic testing does not change what already exists in our DNA, but the knowledge can change our awareness of predisposition and health risk.  

I often hear concerns about privacy and access to genetic information. Regardless of how genetic testing is being facilitated — be it through a research study, a direct-to-consumer DNA kit, or a diagnostic laboratory — it is important to know how your information and data are handled, accessed, stored, and what legal protections exist in relation to genetic information. The Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA), enacted in 2008, protects individuals from discrimination in health insurance and employment based on genetic test results. Some states have additional protections beyond GINA. However, the federal protections do not extend to private life insurance, disability insurance, or long-term care insurance. More information on this federal law can be found at ginahelp.org. Genetic counselors discuss this information during appointments, as it can impact decision-making about genetic testing.   

The role of the genetic counselor is to help navigate these issues and decisions and explain risks and testing in a way that’s easy to understand. Genome Medical is proud to be able to provide this type of precision medicine care in a convenient and affordable way to their patients.  

LunaPBC: Knowledge is truly power. We often get asked, ‘Why would I use Genome Medical’s services when I can order a test on my own through companies like 23andMe and AncestryDNA?’ I’m sure you get these questions, too. How do you best answer this?

Genome Medical: It’s important to understand the difference between consumer and diagnostic testing. While there are many different direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests available that a person can order themselves, diagnostic genetic testing can only be ordered by healthcare professionals like the genetic counselors and geneticists at Genome Medical. The testing performed by consumer companies typically uses SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analysis that looks at predetermined sites in your genes. Most diagnostic genetic testing, however, is performed using next-generation sequencing which looks comprehensive across all sites in the genes. You can think of it this way: if one of your genes was a book, SNP analysis is like reading a single page, whereas next-generation sequencing reads the entire book cover to cover. Further, consumer tests typically do not incorporate personal medical history or family medical history in their offerings. Genetic counselors study this important information alongside diagnostic genetic test results to provide personalized insights and recommendations on health risk. Lastly, most consumer companies report extremely limited, if any, information on inherited disease risk, and, if they did report a finding (whether cancer risk-related or otherwise), the finding absolutely needs to be confirmed through diagnostic genetic testing before making any changes to medical care. If an individual has a strong family history of cancer or cardiovascular disease, they should seek genetic counseling and diagnostic genetic testing.

LunaPBC: So, in short, there’s a significant difference. As we can imagine, your clinical team of 40+ medical geneticists, genetic counselors, primary care doctors, pharmacists, and other specialists — who can provide medical services in all 50 states — puts you at an advantage to reach a wide network of people. How soon can a member speak with one of your Genetic Counselors once they become interested?

Genome Medical: Appointments are very convenient. We can see individuals by phone or video. Interested LunaDNA members can typically speak with a genetic counselor within 24-48 hours (limited weekend appointments are available). 

LunaPBC: This is a great opportunity. Is there anything else that may be important for LunaDNA members to know that we may not have already covered?

Genome Medical: As mentioned earlier, I think everyone can benefit from a thorough discussion of their personal and medical family history. However, it is important to recognize that, like other areas of medicine, genetics is subdivided into different specialties. The genetic counselors at Genome Medical have different areas of expertise, so if an individual is interested in learning more about cancer risk and discussing inherited cardiovascular diseases, this may be best addressed in two separate appointments. In order for our genetic counselors to best tailor your session to fit your specific needs, it always helps to have as much information as possible before your scheduled appointment; this can include filling out our intake survey, indicating specific questions you want to address, and uploading previous genetic test results to our portal for review. The health information in your LunaDNA account can be easily forwarded ahead of your appointment. Our medical practice is driven by our desire to provide the best genetic healthcare experience possible. We look forward to hearing from your members!  

LunaPBC: Thanks for taking the time to chat with us, Sheryl Walker, MS CGC, and for supporting us to encourage our members to take control of their health and their data.

If you are interested in scheduling a consultation with a Genome Medical genetic counselor, you can do so here.

About Genome Medical
Genome Medical is a national telegenomics technology, services and strategy company bringing genomic medicine to everyday care. Through our nationwide network of genetic specialists and efficient​ Genome Care Delivery​ technology platform, we provide expert virtual genetic care for individuals and their families to improve health and well-being. We also help health care providers and their patients navigate the rapidly expanding field of genetics and utilize test results to understand the risk for disease, accelerate disease diagnosis, make informed treatment decisions and lower the cost of care. We are shepherding in a new era of genomic medicine by creating easy, efficient access to top genetic experts. Genome Medical is headquartered in South San Francisco​. ​To learn more, visit www.genomemedical.com ​and follow ​@GenomeMed.​

About the Partnership
Since our partnership in April 2020, LunaDNA members across the United States can access a network of clinical genomic specialists — including medical geneticists, genetic counselors, pharmacists, and primary care doctors — to better understand their health and DNA information.

Interested in learning more about your personal and genomic health? Get started here.